Dad and the Breastfeeding Baby

by Nancy Mohrbacher, IBCLC

For most couples, the weeks and months after the birth of a baby are some of the most joyful and stressful times of their lives. Along with the miraculous wonder of staring into a newborn’s eyes, comes the fatigue of sleepless nights and the emotional vulnerability of changing roles and shifting relationships.

During this time of transitions, breastfeeding affects family dynamics. Although many couples choose breastfeeding in part for the “closeness” it brings, they are often unprepared for the intensity of this physical link between mother and baby. Nursing is more than feeding; it is an act of intimacy. Breastfeeding hormones relax the mother and heighten her sensitivity to her child, evoking an intense desire to respond to his cries. The nursing baby experiences his mother through all five of his senses, finding security and comfort as well as milk at his mother’s breasts.

Since the new father lacks this intense physical link and natural source of comfort, what does this mean to his relationship with his baby? In recent studies, fathers of breastfeeding babies report feelings of frustration and inadequacy because they were unable to easily comfort their babies during their wives’ absence. When they realized their relationship with their baby was different from their wives’, they felt a sense of loss. Even so, the fathers continued to support breastfeeding because of its many health and emotional benefits. Those who wanted to be most actively involved with their babies reassured themselves that this difference “wouldn’t last forever” and found other ways to be involved in their babies’ care. Rather than attempting to duplicate the breastfeeding relationship, they found that they could develop their own unique relationship with their children.

In some fathers, though, feelings of frustration and inadequacy cause them to back off and become even less involved in their baby’s care, leading to resentment and jealousy at their wives’ absorption with the baby. Some fathers perceive the mother-baby bond as a threat.

What should a couple do if the new father begins to develop feelings of resentment or jealousy? In her book, Mothering and Fathering: The Gender Differences in Parenting, Tine Thevenin writes:

“The adjustment that comes with having a child takes effort and understanding. Instead of allowing misunderstandings about each other’s feelings to create a rift, I would suggest that both partners explore and acknowledge their own–and each other’s–emotional responses, while at the same time adopting an attitude of, ‘How can I be of greatest help in our relationship and our family?’”

No matter how his baby is fed, each new father has an important choice to make. Will he allow himself to feel left out and become a bystander in his baby’s care? Or will he take an active role in developing a positive relationship with his baby?

The relationship between father and child is intimately linked to the emotional health of the whole family. The couples’ relationship will be affected, as well as the mother’s ability to meet her own needs. When a mother has confidence in the father’s good relationship with their baby, she will feel freer to take the time she needs for herself. And when she sees her baby and his father happy together, it makes her feel even better about her partner.


Although feeding is one way to interact with a baby, many couples have found that giving bottles doesn’t guarantee closeness. Julie Stock, mother of three, discovered this when she walked in on her husband absent-mindedly feeding their firstborn a bottle with his eyes glued to the football game on television. She and her husband decided to forgo bottles with her next two children and later came to the conclusion that during their babyhood “my husband actually felt closer to the two children who didn’t get bottles, because he had to invest more of himself and be more creative during their time together.”

If the father will be giving bottles, such as when the mother is out for a few hours or if he will be caring for the baby when she goes back to work, it is best to wait until the baby is about a month old before introducing them in order to avoid nipple confusion. Most babies find it confusing to switch back and forth between the breast and artificial nipples during the early weeks while they are just learning to breastfeed. If a baby becomes nipple confused, he may try to nurse the breast like a bottle, causing sore nipples, or he may refuse the breast. Once a baby has been breastfeeding well for three to four weeks, nipple confusion is much less likely to develop.

In Becoming a Father William Sears, MD, pediatrician and father of eight, writes:

“I discourage supplemental bottles especially during the first month because of the risk of disturbing the breastfeeding harmony that mother and baby are working so hard to establish. Instead I encourage fathers to understand, respect, and support the uniqueness of the breastfeeding relationship….In the meantime, supplemental nourishment from dad should go to the mother.”


There are many other ways a father can develop a positive relationship with his breastfeeding baby. First, be aware that mixed feelings about fatherhood are normal. And if a baby obviously prefers mother and is unresponsive to a father at first, it may feel frustrating and discouraging. But even if this happens, it is important to continue to work at the relationship. Some babies take a while to warm up to their fathers’ overtures. Sensitivity and patience go a long way to building closeness.

One way to show sensitivity to a baby is by being aware of and responding to her cues. Notice what happens when you talk to her. Tiny babies have a short attention span and are easily overstimulated. If she turns away, seems uninterested, pensive, or drowsy, just hold her close or try again later. Eye contact, reaching out, or smiling may mean that she’s ready to interact. Just like adults, each baby is a person with preferences. She may like some ways of touching, holding, and playing and not others. If she likes what you’re doing, keep it up and try it again another time. If she does not respond or seems upset, try something else.

Dr. Sears confesses in his book, Becoming a Father, that he didn’t learn how to be a fully involved father until his sixth child. In this book he shares his insights about how he became close to his breastfeeding baby and gives tips for others. His suggestions for fathers and babies younger than three months (the age that many fathers find particularly challenging) include a lot of touching and holding, which he feels helps a father and baby “feel right” together. Some of these early activities include:

  • the “neck nestle,” in which the baby nestles her head against the front of the father’s neck;
  • the “warm fuzzy,” in which the father drapes the infant, skin-to-skin over his chest with the baby’s ear over his heartbeat;
  • various holds that the father can use to comfort his baby;
  • bathing together;
  • wearing the baby in a carrier or sling;
  • infant massage.


The mother’s role in encouraging a strong father-child relationship is one that is very difficult for many new mothers to carry out. During the time when nature programs her to protect her baby at all costs, she needs to overcome her natural inclination to hover while the father cares for the baby. She needs to keep quiet when she feels the urge to comment on or criticize the father’s efforts. (Does it really matter if the baby’s shirt is on backwards and his diaper is a little loose at first?) She needs to step back and let the father-child relationship develop without her. The more of a perfectionist the mother is, the more difficult this can be.

Ginny Rossi, a first-time mother, tells how she helped encourage her husband and son to become close:

We started off slow. During the early weeks my husband would sit next to us while we nursed, touching and caressing Marco, and afterwards he would do the burping. Eventually, after burping, Marco began to fall asleep on his dad’s chest and got used to being close to him. After some weeks of this, Marco was more willing to be comforted by his dad.

Now that Marco is eight months old, my husband is able to take him for a couple of hours every day, and they both look forward to their time together. Not only does it make me happy to see them enjoying each other so much, but this gives me a needed break, which helps me feel better about full-time motherhood. I am convinced that their closeness today stems from their early time together.

In this age of equal partnership between the sexes, one of the lessons of pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding is that sharing an equal commitment to parenthood does not mean fulfilling the same roles. A baby does not need two mothers. Baby stands to benefit most when mother is most fully mother and father is most fully father. During a breastfeeding baby’s early weeks and months this may mean that the relationship between mother and baby is more intense. But a newborn needs his father, and this need grows as he grows. With father and baby, just as with any relationship, greater investment brings greater rewards.